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Thursday, 10 June 2010

ესპანეთის სამეფო – ზოგადი ინფორმაცია






  1. farTobi – 504 030 km². (msoflioSi 51-e)
  2. dedaqalaqi – madridi
  3. mosaxleoba – 45 989 016 (msoflioSi 27-e)
  4. simWidrove – 91 kaci km²-ze (msoflioSi 106-e)
  5. saxelmwifo ena – espanuri
  6. saxelmwifo religia – qristianoba (umTavresad kaTolicizmi)
  7. saxelmwifo wyoba – konstituciuri monarqia
  8. saxelmwifos meTauri – monarqi xuan-karlos I (1975 wlidan burbonebis dinastiidan)
  9. fuladi erTeuli – evro
  10. erovnuli dResaswauli – 12 oqtomberi, espaneTis eris dRe



Thursday, 3 June 2010

კულტურა და ტურიზმი



espaneTis ekonomikis erT-erTi ganviTarebuli dargia turizmi. espaneTs turistebis raodenobis mxriv msoflioSi meore adgili uWiravs. yovelwliurad mas 57 000 000 - ze meti adamiani stumrobs. turistebis 85% espaneTSi zRvispira kurortebze dasasveneblad Cadis. yvelaze didi popularobiT sargeblobs kataloniis kurortebi. evropaSi ganxorciele- buli yoveli mesame kruizi swored espaneTze modis. turizmis ganvi- Tarebis erT-erT xelSemwyobi faqtoria espaneTSi arsebuli saerTo siiafe, rogorc wesi espaneTSi Casuli turistebis umetesi nawili saSu- alo fenis warmomadgenelia.

agreTve uamrav turists izidavs espaneTis unikaluri da mravalferovani kultura.

gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mivaqcioT imas rom es aris is qveyana, romelmac msoflios aCuqa iseTi SesaniSnavi da diadi pirovnebebi rogorebic iyvnen: frederiko garsia lorka, migel de servantesi, antonio gaudi, fransisko goia, pablo pikaso, salvador dali, el greko, diego velsakesi da sxva.

msoflioSi espaneTis savizito baraTs warmoadgens flamenko da korida. orive madganSi naTlad da mkafiod aris asaxuli espaneli xalxis xasiaTi da temperamenti. flamenko aris andaluzieli boSebis simRera da cekva, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia xalxuri simRera gitaris TanxlebiT. cekvas Tan axlavs SeZaxilebi, taSi da TiTebis tkacuni. mamakacebi cekvas asruleben fexebis Zlieri ritmuli moZraobiT, xolo qalebi xelebisa da tanis cecxlovani moZraobiT. rac Seexeba koridas igi saTaves iRerbs brinjaos xanidan da ukavSirdeba pirineis naxevarkunZulze mcxovreb iberielebs, romlebic xars wminda cxovelad Tvlidnen. Tavdapirvelad xaris mokvla specialuri rituali iyo, magram ukve espaneTis erTian saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis Semdeg korida mosaxleobis elitaruli wris gasarTobi xdeba. Tanamedrove korida momdinareobs andaluziidan. masSi monawileobas iRebs 4-dan 6 wlamde xari, romelic unda iwonides aranakleb 450kilograms.

espaneTs Tamamad SeiZleba vuwodoT muzeumi Ria cis qveS, evropis am SesaniSnav qveyanaSi Tavs iyris uamravi msoflio mniSvnelobis istoriuli da kulturuli Zegli, mas gaaCnia fasdaudebeli kulturuli memkvidreoba. msoflios erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi muzeumi swored espaneTSi, kerZod ki madridSi mdebareobs. “prados” muzeumis erT dReSi daTvaliereba misi maStabebidan gamomdinare SeuZlebelia, es aris ganTqmuli muzeumi da xelovnebis galerea, romelSic gamofenilia XIV sa-dan XVI sa-mde evropuli xelovnebis msoflioSi saukeTeso koleqcia. dafuZnda rogorc ferwerul tiloTa da skulpturaTa muzeumi, Tumca muzeums aseve 5000-mde monaxazis, 2000-mde anabeWdis da 1000-mde medlisa da monetis mniSvnelovani koleqcia gaaCnia. skulpturebi warmodgenilia 700-ze meti nimuSiT da ramdenime fragmentiT, SesaniSnavi ferweruli galerea romelic 8600 naxatisagan Sedgeba muzeums msoflio klasis statuss aniWebs.

prados – diego velasakesis, fransisko goias da hieronimus bosxis, agreTve el grekos, rubensis, rafaelis, ticianis, barTlomeo esteban murilios, rembrantis, meloco da forlis, botiCelis, karavajos, albrext diureis, veronezes brwyinvale koleqcia aqvs.

muzeumis koleqciaSi yvelaze ganTqmuli eqsponatia velaskesis “las meninias,,. velaskesma Tavad dauTmo sakuTari saukeTeso namuSevrebis didi nawili muzeums da aseve didi roli Seasrula muzeumSi italiuri xelovnebis nimuSebis mozidvaSi.

aRsaniSnavia pradosTan mdebare madridis kidev ori mniSvnelovani erovnuli muzeumi. arqeologiuri muzeumi, romelSic prados kuTvnili – Zveli egviptis, mesopotamiis, romis da saberZneTis kulturebis eqsponatebia gamofenili da dedofal sofias Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumi, romelic espaneTis exlandeli dedoflis saxels atarebs da romelSic gamofenilia XX sa-is xelovnebis nimuSebi. muzeumis koleqciaSi yvelaze ganTqmuli eqsponatia pablo pikasos maStaburi da urTulesi tilo “gernika,,.

agreTve umrav turists xiblavs espaneTis gansakuTrebuli arqireqturu- li stili. espaneTis arqiteqturis TvalsaCino magaliTia seviliis sakaTedro taZari, romlis mSeneblobac 1402 wels daiwyo da XVI sa-mde gagrZelda. es aris udidesi romaul-kaTolikuri kaTedrali da aseve udidesi Suasaukuneebis goTikur-religiuri Senoba, rogorc farTobiT aseve moculobiTac. msoflioSi udidesi da umdidresi sakurTxevlis mSeneblobis mTavari mizanic swored is iyo rom msoflios daenaxa seviliis simdidre da sidiade. agreTve SeuZlebelia gverdi auaroT da ar avRniSnoT msofliomniSvnelobis arqiteqturuli Sedevri sagrada familia – wminda ojaxis sakaTedro taZari. es aris gotikuri stilis masiuri mSenebare bazilika barselonaSi. romlis mSeneblobac 1888 wels daiwyo da dRemde grZeldeba, am grandiozuli proeqtis ganxorcielebas Tavisi cxovrebis 40 weli dauTmo didma espanelma arqiteqtorma antonio gaudim.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain

ესპანეთის ეკონომიკა

ekonomikuri potencialiT espaneTi mexuTe qveyanaa evrogaerTianebaSi. erToblivi Sida produqtis moculobiT igi me-10-a msoflioSi.
qveynis ekonomikis unmiSvnelovanes dargTa Soris momsaxureobis sferos dargebs wayvani adgili ukaviaT. aseve didia turizmis, sabanko-safinanso da sxva dargebis rolic. momsaxureobis udidesi dargia turizmi, espaneTi turistebis raodenobis mxriv mesame qveyanaa msoflioSi safrangeTisa da SeerTebuli Statebis Semdeg.
ganviTarebis swrafi tempiT xasiaTdeba saavtomobilo transporti, rac gamowveulia, rogorc mrewvelobis aseve turizmis ganviTarebis swrafi tempebiT. saavtomobilo transportze modis mTeli tvirT brunvis da mgzavrTbrunvis naxevarze meti.
turistuli industriis ganviTarebam mniSvnelovnad gazarda aseve sahaero transportis rolic. qveynis udidesi aeroportebia madridsa da barselonaSi. udidesi aviakompania “iberia erlainzi,,.
qveynis ekonomikuri cxovrebisaTvis udides rols asrulebs sazRvao transporti, romliTac xorcieldeba espaneTis sagareo vaWrobis 90%. mniSvnelovani navsadgurebia: bilbao, kartaxena, kadisi, barselona da a.S.
mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada espaneTis mrewvelobis struqturam. Tu omamde periodSi aq Warbobda msubuqi mrewveloba da kvebis mrewvelobis dargebi, aseve mopovebiTi mrewveloba, bolo aTwleulebSi maTi adgili daikava manqanaTmSeneblobis Tanamedrove dargebma, qimiurma mrewvelobam, metalurgiam, mSeneblobam. espaneTis industria aRWurvilia Tanamedrove teqnikiT, didia aq ucxouri kapitalis roli.
navTobi da gazi qveynis mrewvelobis moTxovnilebebs praqtikulad ver akmayofilebs. navTobi Semodis, ZiriTadad, sparseTis ubis qveynebidan, gazi – alJiridan da libiidan, xolo naxSiris udidesi mimwodebelia germania da aSS.
saTbobis da eleqtroenergiis udidesi momxmarebelia Savi metalurgia, romelic ZiriTadad, viTardeba adgilobrivi rkinis madniT, Tumca metalurgiisTvis saWiro naxSiri Semodis sazRvargareTidan.
espaneTis feradi metalurgia kargad aris uzrunvelyofili sakuTari nedleuliT, es dargi dReisTvis, ZiriTadad, muSaobs sakuTari bazrisTvis. Tumca sxvadasxva saxis nedleuli gadis msoflios bazarze, mag.: vercxliswylis mopovebis 95% saRdeba msoflios bazarze.
manqanaTmSenebloba espaneTis mrewvelobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi dargia, gansakuTrebiT zrdis maRali tempiT gamoirCeva gemTmSenebloba, saavtomobilo manqanaTmSenebloba da eleqtronuli mrewveloba.
gemTmSenebloba ara marto qveynis, aramed mTeli dasavleT evropis mrewvelobis umniSvnelovanesi dargia. espaneTis gemsaSeni verfebi teqnikuri TvalsazrisiT erT-erTi mowinavea msoflioSi. gemTmSenebloba, ZiriTadad, specializdeba tankebis, madansazidebis, sawvavi gazis da qimiuri produqtebis sazidi, saTevzao da samgzavro gemebis warmoebiT.
espanuri gemebis udidesi importioria aSS, gaerTianebuli samefo, arge-ntina da a.S.
saavtomobilo mrewveloba manqanaTmSeneblobis swrafad mzardi dargia. pirveli saavtomobilo qarxana qveyanaSi aSenda jer kidev 1904 wels – barselonaSi, Tumca avtomobilebis seriuli damzadeba daiwyes 1953 wels, italiuri kompaniis “fiatis,, licenziiT. gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ukavia: ,,fiats’’, ,,renos’’, ,,sitroens”.
manqanaTmSeneblobis uaxlesi dargia eleqtronuli da eleqtroteqnikuri mrewveloba, romelic, ZiriTadad, viTardeba ucxouri kapitalis aqtiuri daxmarebiT. aq sWarbobs iaponuri, britanuli, germanuli kompaniebi.
safeiqro mrewveloba espaneTis industriis uZvelesi dargia, romelsac Tavis mniSvneloba dResac ar daukargavs. es dargi, ZiriTadad, viTardeba Semotanili nedleuliT. mag.: bamba Semodis TurqeTidan, saberZneTidan, braziliidan, egviptidan da aSS-dan. safeiqro mrewvelobis dargebi, ZiriTadad, Tavmoyrilia kataloniaSi. mrewvelobis am dargSi umTavresia bambeulis warmoeba.
msubuqi mrewvelobis sxva dargebidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia tyav-fexsacmlis warmoeba, romlis saerTo potencialiT espaneTi erT-erTi mowinave qveyanaa mTels msoflioSi.
kvebis mrewvelobis dargebidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia zeTisxilis warmoeba, romlis eqsportiTac qveyana pirvelia msoflioSi.
Rvinis warmoebiT espaneTi erT-erTi mowinave qveyanaa mTels msiflioSi. igi warmoebis koncentraciis maRali doniT gamoirCeva. katalonia cnobilia Sampanuris da liqioris warmoebiT, aragona iZleva burgundiis da bordos sufris Rvinos, xolo andaluzia msoflioSi saxelganTqmu- ia Tavisi desertuli RvinoebiT, aseve, koniakiT.
soflis meurneoba espaneTis meurneobis umniSvnelovanesi dargia, romelic aRWurvilia teqnologiuri miRwevebiT.
soflismeurneobis wamyvani dargi memcenareobaa. teqnikuri kulturebidan gamoirCeva Saqris Warxali, bamba, mzesumzira da Tambaqo.
memcenareobaSi udidesi saeqsporto mniSvneloba aqvs zeTisxils. zeTisxilis mosavliT da zeiTunis zeTis warmoebiT espaneTi pirveli qveyanaa msoflioSi.
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs mevenaxeobas, romelsac, farTobebis mixedviT, mesame adgili ukavia marcvleuli kulturisa da zeTis xilis nargavebis Semdeg. vazis nargavebis mxriv espaneTi msoflioSi CamorCeba mxolod safrangeTs, xolo mosavliT mesamea safrangeTisa da italiis Semdeg.
mebaReobidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva mecitruseoba. espaneTi citruse-
bis udidesi mwarmoebelia msoflioSi. mebostneobidan eqsportis udides nawils qmnis pamidori, xaxvi, adreuli kartofili da sxva.
mecxoveleoba soflis meurneobis meorexarisxovani dargia, rac, upirvelesad, aixsneba bunebrivi saZovrebis mcire produqtiulobiT, gansakuTrebiT ki ,,mSral” espaneTSi. mecxoveleobis ganviTarebiT gamoirCeva ,,teniani” espaneTi - e.i. CrdiloeTi, sadac wamyvani adgili msxvilfexa rqosani saqonlis moSenebas eTmoba. Txis da cxvris sulado- biT qveyana meorea dasavleT evropaSi.
uZvelesi droidan mniSvnelovani yuradReba eqceoda meTevzeobas. TevzWe- ris mxriv espaneTi Sedis msoflio aTeulSi.
sagareo ekonomikur kavSirurTierTobaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs ,,evropuli gaerTianebis” qveynebs, saidanac bolo wlebSi gansa-kuTrebiT gamoirCeva safrangeTi, gaerTianebuli samefo da germania.
aSS-s, tradiciulad, mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs espaneTTan vaWrobaSi.
swrafi tempiT izrdeba savaWro urTierToba amomavali mzis qveynebTan. afrikidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva libia da alJiri, laTinuri amerikidan ki aRsaniSnavia meqsika da brazilia.
espaneTis ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs ucxouri kapitali, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia aSS da safrangeTi.

ესპანეთის ფლორა და ფაუნა

espaneTis CrdiloeT da Crdilo-dasavleT raionebSi foTolmcvivani fa- rTofoTlovani tyeebia (wifeli, muxa, wabli) maradmwvane mcenareulobis qvetyiT.

mTis kalTebis zeda nawilSi, mTis ewer niadagze wiwvovanityeebia (fiWvi, roWi). pireneebSi tyis zeda sazRvari 1800 - 2100 metrze gadis, maT zemoT mTis mdelos niadagebze, subalpuri da alpuri mcenareulobaa. aq izrde- ba qserofituli tyeebi (maradmwvane muxa, fiWvi, kviparosi, agreTve wabli ,nekerCxali, cacxvi).

qveynis ukidures samxreT nawilSi evropaSi erTaderTi velurad mzardi palmis qamerofsiis rayebia. mdinareTa xeobebSi aluviur niadagebze mde- los mcenareulobaa.

espaneTis CrdiloeT da Crdilo-dasavleT raionebSi fauna xmelTaSu- azRviuris msgavsia (mela, kverna, mura daTvi, maCvi, arCvi). danarCen ra- ionebSi Warbobs endemuri da Crd.afrikis faunis saxeobebi (vivera, espa- nuri kurdReli, zRarbi).

gibraltaris maxloblad gvxvdeba makaki – maimunis erTaderTi warmoma- dgeneli evropaSi. espaneTSi frinvelebis 400-mde saxeobaa. bevria xvliki, gveli. sanapiro wylebi mdidaria TevziT.

pireneis naxevarkunZulze warmodgenilia 6000 – ze meti umaRlesi saxe- obis mcenare, romelTa Soris 1500 saxeoba endemuria. spaeTis teritoriis 10% tyiT aris dafaruli.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain

ესპანეთის გეოგრაფიული მდებარეობა და ბუნება




espaneTi mdebareobs evropis samxreT-dasavleTiT, pireneis naxevar- kunZulze da ukavia misi teritoriis 84%. mas ekuTvnis balearis da pitiuzis kunZulebi xmelTaSua zRvaSi da kanaris kunZulebi atlantis okeaneSi, romelic 100-120 km-iT aris daSorebuli afrikis Crdilo-dasavleT sanapiros. espaneTs ekuTvnis aseve ori qalaqi afrikis xmelTa- Sua zRvis sanapiroze: seuta da melilia da maTTan mdebare patara kunZulebi.

misi saxmeleTo mezoblebia: safrangeTi, andora, portugalia da gibra-

ltari. espaneTs farTo gasasvleli aqvs rogorc atlantis okeaneSi, aseve xmelTaSua zRvaze.

qveyana mdebareobs msiflios umniSvnelovanes sazRvao da sahaero gzajva-redinebze. mas ukavia mniSvnelovani strategiuli mdebareoba xmelTaSua zRvis dasavleTiT.

espaneTis reliefSi sWarbobs dabali da saSualo simaRlis platoebi da gorak-borcvebi, romlebic Semofarglulia CrTiloeTidan, aRmosavleTi- dan da samxreTidan mTiani sistemebiT.

qveynis teritoriis 2/3 ukavia mesetas. mas or nawilad hyofs kastiliis mTebi. meseta samxreTiT SemosazRvrulia sieramorenas mTebiT (Savi mTe- bi), romelic cicabod eSveba andaluziis dablobze. CrdiloeTiTi mese- tas sazRvravs kantabris mTebi, romelic 600 km-is manZilze miuyveba biskais ubes.

safrangeTisa da espaneTis bunebriv sazRvars qmnis pireneis mTebi.

mesetas Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT esazRvreba iberiis mTebi, romelic dahyu-

ebs aragonis dablobs da romlis centrSic mdinare ebro miedineba. Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT safrangeTis sazRvridan md.ebros SesarTavamde ga- daWimulia kataloniis qedi.

qveynis samxreT da samxreT-aRmosavleTSi, xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiroze, gadaWimulia kordiliera-betika, romelic dasavleTiT siera-morenas mTe-bisgan gamoyofilia andaluziis dablobiT, romelzec mdinare gvadala-kviviri miedineba. kordiliera-betikas samxreTiT mdebareobs siera-nevadas mTebi, samefos umaRles mwvervals ki warmoadgens mTa teide kanaris kunZulebze – 3718m.

espaneTis klimatis Camoyalibebaze udides gavlenas axdens atlantis okeanidan Semosuli zRvis haeris masebi, sahara, pirineis naxevarkunZulis masiuroba da hifsometriuli maCveneblebi. espaneTis klimati SeiZleba Sefasdes, rogorc suptropikuli, cxeli zafxuliT da mokle rbili zamTriT.

espaneTi xasiaTdeba kargad ganviTarebuli da xSiri samdinaro qseliT. qveynis yvelaze grZeli mdinarea taxo. sxva mdinareebs Soris aRsaniSna- via: duero, gvadiana, gvadalakviviri, ebro, mino, xenili da sxva.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain